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Occasionally, ß has been used in unusual ways: This article is about the German eszett. Pronunciation of the SS. Two distinct blackletter typefaces in Mainz. Native English speakers often therefore experiences difficulties in distinguishing between the letters 's' and 'z', particularly when they occur at the start of a word. Today, Swiss publishing houses use 'ß' only for books that address the entire German-speaking market. [13] This problem of Adelung's rule was solved by Heyse who distinguished between the long s ("ſ") and the round s ("s"). In the late 18th and early 19th century, when more and more German texts were printed in Roman type (Antiqua), typesetters looked for an exact Roman counterpart for the blackletter ſʒ ligature, which did not exist in Roman fonts. Often, the letter is input using a modifier and the 's' key. The 1984 edition removed this statement again and simply stated that there is no capital version of ß. This applies especially to all-caps or small-caps texts because 'ß' had no generally accepted majuscule form until 2017. At a line break, this 'ss' that replaces an 'ß' has to be hyphenated as a single letter in the traditional orthography. If you are using Microsoft Windows, either hold down Alt and type 225 on your numeric keypad, or hold down Alt and type 0223. Many dialects of German, however, have an even longer vowel, or an audibly less-sharp s, in cases single s is used. That may be due in part to the more guttural pronunciation of certain German alphabet sounds and diphthongs and perhaps even a still lingering effect of old WWII movie stereotypes. The grapheme has an intermediate position between a true letter and a ligature. After the Neue Zürcher Zeitung became the last Swiss German newspaper to stop using 'ß' in 1974, the character now only appears in a few publications that are aimed at the German-speaking market as a whole rather than at the domestic Swiss market. History of the Eszett. ), Learn how and when to remove this template message, "C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement, Range 0080–00FF", "Unterrichtsstunde: Wir lernen das Alphabet! In the traditional orthography, 'ß' is always used at the end of a word or word-component, or before a consonant, even when the preceding vowel is short. The HTML entity for ß is ß. The temptation to pronounce the sound like an English letter 'z' must be resisted - the German 'z' is only ever pronounced as an English letter 'z' in a few imported words such as 'das Quiz'. In 1903 it was proclaimed as the new standard for the Eszett in Roman type. The HTML entity ß was introduced with HTML 2.0 (1995). [11], Since then, German printing set in Roman type has used the letter ß (except in Switzerland, where it fell out of use in the 1930s). Zeitschrift für Deutschlands Buchdrucker, Steindrucker und verwandte Gewerbe. ) in blackletter typefaces (yielding ſʒ),[a] which became conflated with the ligature for long s and round s (ſs) used in Roman type. [18] ⟨sz⟩) ligature in blackletter fonts. Heyse's argument: Given that "ss" may appear at the end of a word, before an interstice and "s" being a common initial letter for words, "sss" is likely to appear in a large number of cases (the amount of these cases is even higher than all the possible triple consonant cases (e.g. In the 20th century, it fell out of use completely in Swiss Standard German (used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein),[5] while it remains part of the orthography of Standard German elsewhere. Such cases were rare enough that this rule was officially abandoned in the reformed orthography. The development of a recognizable ligature representing the ⟨sz⟩ digraph develops in handwriting in the early 14th century. In German orthography, the grapheme, ß, called Eszett (IPA: [ɛsˈtsɛt]) or scharfes S (IPA: [ˈʃaɐ̯fəs ˈʔɛs], [ˈʃaːfəs ˈʔɛs], lit. The German military still occasionally uses the capitalized 'SZ', even without any possible ambiguity, as SCHIESZGERÄT ("shooting materials"). In the Gothic book hands and bastarda scripts of the high medieval period, ⟨sz⟩ is written with long s and the Blackletter "tailed z", as ſʒ. The German Consonant 's' . [citation needed]. Its code point in the ISO 8859 character encoding versions 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16 and identically in Unicode is 223, or DF in hexadecimal. The capital variant (U+1E9E ẞ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER SHARP S) was encoded by ISO 10646 in 2008. The JavaScript in Google Chrome will convert "ß" to "SS" when converted to uppercase (e.g. There are few languages that can claim that—especially not English or French, let alone Asian languages. Auflage, 1925, Cord Wischhöfer: "Proposal to encode Latin Capital Letter Sharp S to the UCS". The Sulzbacher form, however, did not find unanimous acceptance. Traditionally, it did not have a capital form, although some type designers introduced de facto capitalized variants of ß. 9. Blüml, Karl; Nerius, Dieter; Sitta, Horst (Eds. Get a crash course in German pronunciation in this free beginner German lesson. It is also consistent with the general rule of German spelling that a doubled consonant letter serves to mark the preceding vowel as short (the consonant sound is never actually doubled or lengthened in pronunciation). Excepted are all-caps names in legal documents; they may retain an 'ß' to prevent ambiguity (for instance: STRAßER, since Straßer and Strasser are both possible names). Search and learn to pronounce words and phrases in this language (German). The German alphabet is more or less like the English one. Heyse used a ligature between long and round s, which looked different from the sz ligature. The name Eszett combines the names of the letters of ⟨s⟩ (Es) and ⟨z⟩ (Zett) in German. As in the reformed orthography, traditional orthography uses ß after long vowels and diphthongs, even when followed by a vowel. The character's Unicode names in English are sharp s[1] and eszett.[1]. "Dampfschifffahrt") together). German: Useful content. If no 'ß' is available, 'ss' or 'sz' is used instead ('sz' especially in Hungarian-influenced eastern Austria). The correct spelling is not predictable out of context (in Standard German pronunciation), but is usually made clear by related forms, e.g., Größe ('size') and grasen ('to graze'), where the medial consonants are pronounced [s] and [z], respectively. [6] There were four distinct variants of ß in use in Antiqua fonts: The first variant (no ligature) has become practically obsolete. The recommendation of the Sulzbacher form (1903) was not followed universally in 20th-century printing.

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